OMICS International invites all the participants across the globe to attend the International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Chemistry during March 31-April 01, 2016 Valencia, Spain with the theme of New Paradigm & Novel Access in the Areas of Materials Chemistry.
Materials Chemistry 2016 has been exceptionally designed with emerging trends like Materials Science and Engineering, Role of Materials Chemistry in Pharmacy, Rational Chemical Synthesis on Nanoscale and Nanostructured materials, Study of Polymer Science and Technology and Applied Materials Chemistry.
Materials Science and Engineering, also commonly known as materials science, encompasses the science, engineering and technology of materials and is an integrative subject which gives an idea about the discovery and design of new materials. It deals with studying materials through the materials paradigm (synthesis, structure, properties, and performance). Optimization processes are particle packing problems, such as how densely hard particles can fill a volume, topology optimization method can be used to determine material microstructures with optimized or targeted properties and the generation of realizations of random heterogeneous materials with specified but limited microstructural information.
Basic Informatics in various fields, the essence of Materials Chemistry can be observed in various fields i.e., organic, inorganic, analytical and physical and biomimetic studies. Organic chemistry provides organic polymers for use in structures, films, fibers, coatings, and so on. It provides materials with complex functionality, a bridge between materials science and medicine and provides a sophisticated synthetic entry into nanomaterials. Inorganic chemistry deals with the structure, properties, and reactions of molecules that do not contain carbon, such as metals. It helps us to understand the behaviour and the characteristics of inorganic materials which can be altered, separated, or used in products, such as ceramics and superconductors. Analytics determine the structure, composition, and nature of substances, by identifying and analysing their various elements or compounds.
Role of Materials chemistry in Pharmacy, materials science and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs). Compounds used as medicines are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the classes of small organic molecules (e.g., atorvastatin) and "biologics" (erythropoietin, insulin), the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins (natural and recombinant antibodies, hormones, etc.). Inorganic and organic compounds are also useful as drugs (e.g., lithium and platinum-based agents such as lithium carbonate and cis-platin.
Design and Synthesis of Materials, certain principles are there to synthesize a novel material : to develop an understanding of different materials systems, to know the origins of physical, chemical, and functional properties of different materials, to study basic principles of synthesis and characterization of materials, to understand the origins of functional responses of materials and also the role of materials in science, industry, and technology. Often a pure substance needs to be isolated from a mixture or after chemical reactions (which often give mixtures of chemical substances). From ores, extraction can be done by means of oxidation and reduction whereas in laboratory by techniques like Hydraulic Washing, Magnetic Separation, Froth Floatation Method, Leaching and so on.
Foundational Challenges in predictive Materials chemistry, are light harvesting is the study of materials and molecules that capture photons of solar light. This includes studies to better understand the light-harvesting properties of photosynthetic organisms. Examples are chlorophylls and carotenoids in plants and man-made solar cells, optical materials and so on. The challenge for the future is to capture, store, and release energy on an immediate timescale and in a sustainable way. Hence chemical reactions should be controlled for future purpose. Gases and liquids are fluids for us whereas designer fluids are tailored in such a way that these are altered and used in various processes like adsorption and so on for an efficient and clean future energy. This process is also widely applied in case of biochemistry, geochemistry.
Rational Chemical Synthesis on Nanoscale and Nanostructured materials, includes magnetically tunable photonic structures are prepared in alkanol solutions by using silica-modified superparamagnetic Fe3O4 colloids as building blocks. Repulsive electrostatic and magnetically induced attractive forces contribute to the ordering of the Fe3O4@SiO2 colloids. The ability to form tunable photonic structures in nonaqueous solutions allows the fabrication of field-responsive polymer composite films for potential applications as displays and sensors. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are materials in which metal – to-organic ligand interactions yield porous coordination networks with record-setting surface areas surpassing activated carbons and zeolites. They are used in the storage and separations of gases, catalysis and others. There are two major methods to construct DNA nanostructures, the tile-based and DNA origami methods.
Study of Polymer Science and Technology, is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers which were considered as macromolecules. Polymers describe the bulk properties of polymer materials and belong to the field of polymer physics as a subfield of physics. Polymers are of two types-natural ( e.g., rubber, amber ), synthetic ( e.g., polyethylene, nylon, PVC ). Polymerization is the process of combining many small molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain or network. General methods of synthesis include-Biological synthesis and also by modification of natural polymers. Laboratory methods are generally divided into two categories, step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization. Polymers are characterized by the presence of monomer units and microstructures and they can be determined by means of many lab techniques.
Applied Materials Chemistry, the effects of ultrasound induce certain physical changes like the dispersal of fillers and other components into base polymers (as in the formulation of paints), the encapsulation of inorganic particles with polymers, changing of particle size in polymer powders, and most important is the welding and cutting of thermoplastics. In contrast, chemical changes can also be created during ultrasonic irradiation as a result of cavitation, and these effects have been used to favour many areas of polymer chemistry. In materials science, the sol-gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules. This method is used for the fabrication of metal oxides particularly the oxides of silicon and titanium. The process involves conversion of monomers into a colloidal solution (sol) that acts as the precursor for an integrated network (or gel) of either discrete particles or network polymers.
Current Innovations and Emerging Areas, like nanostructure deals with objects and structures that are in the 1—100 nm range. In many materials, atoms or molecules cluster together to form objects at the nanoscale. This leads to interesting electromagnetic, optical and mechanical properties. The term 'nanostructure' is often used when referring to magnetic technology. Microstructure is defined as the structure of a prepared surface or thin foil of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification. It deals with objects from 100 nm to a few cm. Most of the traditional materials (such as metals and ceramics) are microstructured. Macrostructure is the appearance of a material in the scale millimeters to meters—it is the structure of the material as seen with the naked eye. Atomic structure deals with the atoms of the materials and how they are arranged to give molecules, crystals, etc.,
Research Aspects, surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases along with solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces. It is closely related to surface engineering, which targets at modifying the chemical composition of a surface by incorporation of selected elements or functional groups that produce various desired effects or improvements in the properties of the surface or interface. Biomedical materials are prepared from tissue engineering for the compatibility in the human body. Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that source, detect and control light, usually considered as a sub-field of photonics. It is based on the quantum mechanical effects of light on electronic materials, especially semiconductors, occasionally in the presence of electric fields. Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Science of Advanced Materials, two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They have high specific surface area and also electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They exhibit a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. Many 2D materials are synthesized by selective extraction process which is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. These have a thickness of a few nanometres or less. Magnetic topological insulator comprised of two-dimensional (2-D) materials has a potential of providing many interests and applications by manipulating the surfaces states like yielding quantum anomalous Hall effect giving rise to dissipation-less chiral edge current, giving axion electromagnetism and others.